Reconnaissance interpretation of permafrost, Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Reconnaissance interpretation of permafrost, Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska
Abstract:
During 2006 and 2007 the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys conducted reconnaissance interpretive mapping of permafrost in Alaska Highway Corridor Segment 1, which straddles the Alaska Highway through the Tanana River valley from Delta Junction to the eastern boundary of the Mt. Hayes Quadrangle. Primarily, we inferred the extent of permafrost and ice content by interpreting ~1:63,360-scale, false-color infrared aerial photographs taken in August 1980.
Supplemental_Information:
The layers listed below are present as ArcGIS shape files. To enhance print quality, this publication utilized a vector topography data set. The topography data set is not included with this release. Attribute information for the following layers (entities) is included in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribute_Information" section. Basic unit information is also included in the unit code set file "PIR2008-3C_codeset.pdf". Each layer is listed and described in detail under its own heading starting "Entity_Type_Label."Layers include:
PermafrostPolygons	permafrost map unit polygons
Pingo	locations of pingos
Locality	locations of five sites discussed in the text
Outline	outline shape of the study area
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Reger, R.D., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Reconnaissance interpretation of permafrost, Alaska Highway corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3C, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 10 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -145.92459
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -144.00000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 64.12621
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 63.49725

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: 1980
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 6
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.999600
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -147.000000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
      False_Easting: 500000.000000
      False_Northing: 0

      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0000001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.0000001
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    PermafrostPolygons.shp
    permafrost map unit polygons (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    MapUnit
    Label of map unit shown on map signifying interpreted extent and amount of permafrost within polygon. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Formal fet
    Codeset Name:PIR2008-3C_codeset.pdf
    Codeset Source:Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us/metadata/PIR2008-3C_codeset.pdf>

    Locality.shp
    Points identifying locations discussed in the report (PIR 2008-3c). (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    locality
    Locality label as shown on map (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    A, B, C, D

    LocLat
    Latitude of locality (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    Range of values
    Minimum:63.5
    Maximum:64.0
    Units:decimal degrees

    LocLong
    Longitude of locality (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    Range of values
    Minimum:-146.0
    Maximum:-144.0
    Units:decimal degrees

    LocNorthing
    northing (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    Range of values
    Minimum:7044293
    Maximum:7111325
    Units:meters

    LocEasting
    easting (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    Range of values
    Minimum:552363
    Maximum:6449300
    Units:meters

    Quadrangle
    quadrangle (Source: USGS topographic quadrangle sheets)

    1:63,360 quadrangle

    Pingo.shp
    point location of pingos (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Id
    symbol identifying location of pingo on map (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    pingos shown on map

    Outline.shp
    polygone outlining boundary of map area (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    shape
    shape of polygon outlining map boundary (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    shape of map area


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This research was supported by Alaska State Capital Improvement Projects funding.Additional Acknowledgments: Most of the background knowledge for this permafrost interpretation was learned during preconstruction geotechnical investigations for the trans-Alaska oil pipeline system (Kreig and Reger, 1976, 1982), with input based on early investigations by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, R & M Consultants, Inc., and especially Mike Metz and Ray Kreig. Subsurface water well data were provided by Steven Squires. De Anne Stevens, Gary Carver and Santosh Panda collaborated in field observations and discussions. The report was reviewed by De Anne S.P. Stevens.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Data Manager/Cartographer
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707

    (907) 451-5029 (voice)
    (907) 451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@dnr.state.ak.us

    Contact_Instructions:
    You may view our web site at <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us> for the latest information on available data.Please e-mail your questions and data requests when possible since our web site and e-mail address will remain current even if our phone number and mailing address change.


Why was the data set created?

This report and map are a part of ADGGS'sAlaska Natural Gas Pipeline Geology and Geohazards project, showing an interpretive evaluation of the presence or absence of permafrost in the study area. The study was done in anticipation of the proposed natural gas pipeline along the Alaska Highway corridor, as a preliminary look at the expected distribution of permafrost based on air photo interpretation.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Kreig and Reger, 1976 (source 1 of 4)
    Kreig, R.A., and Reger, R.D., 1976, Preconstruction terrain evaluation for the trans-Alaska pipeline project: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa., USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. 55–76
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Coates, D. R., 1976, Geomorphology and engineering: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa., USA.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Contains permafrost evaluation for trans-Alaska oil pipeline

    Kreig and Reger, 1982 (source 2 of 4)
    Kreig, R.A., and Reger, R.D., 1982, Air-photo analysis and summary of landform soil properties along the route of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System: Geologic Report GR-66, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 149 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Contains permafrost evaluation for trans-Alaska oil pipeline

    Ferrians, 1965 (source 3 of 4)
    Ferrians, O.J., Jr., 1965, Permafrost map of Alaska: Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-445, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 map sheet, scale 1:2,500,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2500000
    Source_Contribution: Generalized permafrost map of Alaska

    Pewe and Reger, 1983 (source 4 of 4)
    Péwé, T.L., and Reger, R.D., 1983, Middle Tanana River valley: Guidebook Guidebook 1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. 5-45
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Péwé, T.L., ed., and Reger, R.D., ed., 1983, Guidebook to permafrost and Quaternary geology along the Richardson and Glenn Highways between Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska: Guidebook Guidebook 1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 263 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains information about permafrost and Quaternary geology of Tanana Valley

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2007 (process 1 of 4)
    Aerial photograph interpretation- Stereo pairs of ~1:63,360-scale, false-color infrared aerial photographs taken in August 1980 were used to interpret the presence and condition of permafrost.Interpreted proxy data include vegetation, slope and aspect, landforms, geology, local drainage, and terrain features.Unit boundaries were drawn by hand onto acetate overlays, using a magnifying stereoscope. Overlays were registered to aerial photos using tick marks on the photos. Digital aerial photos and scanned overlays were individually orthorectified using Orthomapper 3.6.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Kreig and Reger, 1976
    • Kreig and Reger, 1982
    • Ferrians, 1965
    • Pewe and Reger, 1983

    Date: 2008 (process 2 of 4)
    Digital cartography- The acetate overlays were then individually scanned and orthorectified, using Orthomapper, v. 3.6, and georeferenced. The air-photos were orthorectified, photomosaiced and georeferenced. Permafrost unit boundaries were digitized on-screen into ArcGIS from the orthorectified overlays at a scale more detailed than 1:63,360, using a combination of a USGS topographic 1:63.360 map layer and the air-photo photomosaic layer to verify the position of the lines. Permafrost map polygons and lines were then edited and attributed using ArcMap 9.0.

    Date: 2007 (process 3 of 4)
    Fieldwork - In July-August 2007, to verify aerial photo interpretations, localities of varying permafrost conditions were visited in the field to observe surface conditions. In addition, several pits were dug using shovels to maximum depth of 1.5 meters to observe soil profiles and whether frozen soil was present.

    Date: 2008 (process 4 of 4)
    Metadata creation - Metadata were assembled by D.N. Solie to FGDC Standards using Metavist 1.2, DGGS 7.05, a data entry program for FGDC metadata with XML output.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Reger, R.D., Stevens, D.S.P., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Surficial-geologic map, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3a, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, UAS.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Reger, R.D., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Engineering-geology map, Alaska Highway Corriodr, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3B, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    The permafrost interpretations were first hand-drawn, using a magnifying stereoscope, onto acetate air-photo overlays at the scale of the air-photos (approximately inch-to-the-mile). The air-photos were taken in August 1980. The presence or former presence of permafrost and the ground-ice content were inferred from several indicators, including vegetation, slope and aspect, landform, soil type, local drainage, and terrain features, such as open-system pingos, polygonal ground, and thermokarst pits, gullies, and ponds (Kreig and Reger, 1982). Permafrost classifications in areas that were burned just prior to August 1980 are less reliable than in unburned areas because the vegetation was destroyed or significantly altered and, in these areas, interpretation of permafrost was based only on landform and setting, which are less diagnostic than vegetation.During summer field work in 2007, a limited number of test pits was dug to verify initial interpretations. The accuracy of the map unit boundary locations vary due to the scale and interpretive nature of the mapping, but are expected to be accurate to at least 500 ft. Map units labeled with a "?" are considered to have an uncertain assignation due to conditions such as in recently burned areas, areas in which considerable surface water is present on landforms that woudl normally be frozen, in artificial clearings, and in Delta-age kettle fillings with uncertain thickness of peat.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The permafrost interpretations were first hand-drawn, using a magnifying stereoscope, onto acetate air-photo overlays at the scale of the air-photos (approximately inch-to-the-mile). The accuracy of the map unit boundary locations vary due to the scale and interpretive nature of the mapping, but are expected to be accurate to at least 500 ft.The acetate overlays were then individually scanned and orthorectified, using Orthomapper, v. 3.6, and georeferenced. The air-photos were orthorectified, photomosaiced and georeferenced. Permafrost unit boundaries were digitized on-screen into ArcGIS from the orthorectified overlays at a scale more detailed than 1:63,360, using a combination of a USGS topographic 1:63.360 map layer and the air-photo photomosaic layer to verify the position of the lines. Location of points on map that are discussed in the text were recorded usinga Garmin GPS model 76CSx with a horizontal error of 4 meters or less.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This dataset includes coverages that contain information about the interpreted presence and ice content of permafrost in the map area, pingoes, and localities discussed in the report. Subsurface permafrost data were not available for use in creating this map coverage. This report uses the definition of permafrost as rock or soil that remains continuously colder than 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) for two years or longer.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Polygon topology is present on appropriate coverages; others are line or point coverages.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset are available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    Natural Resource Technician
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    907-451-5020 (voice)
    907-451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@dnr.state.ak.us

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our Web site (<http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3C

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof, or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requester or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    It is suggested that MapInfo users import ESRI shape files (if provided) due to the possibility of data loss when importing Arc Export .e00 files.Please check the MapInfo Web site (<http://www.mapinfo.com/>) for the latest documentation on importing Arc Export and/or ESRI shape files.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 30-Sep-2008
Metadata author:
State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

907-451-5039 (voice)
907-451-5050 (FAX)
dggspubs@alaska.gov

Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays.
Contact_Instructions:
Please contact us through the e-mail address above whenever possible.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Mon Dec 29 15:20:42 2008