Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska

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Frequently anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate tsunami hazard for the community of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay area, Alaska. This report will provide guidance to local emergency managers in tsunami hazard assessment. We used a numerical modeling method to estimate the extent of inundation by tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Our tsunami scenarios included a repeat of the tsunami of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as tsunami waves generated by two hypothetical Yakataga Gap earthquakes in northeastern Gulf of Alaska, hypothetical earthquakes in Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and local underwater landslides in Resurrection Bay. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations in the region are intended to help local emergency officials with evacuation planning and public education for reducing future tsunami risk.
Supplemental_Information:
The DGGS metadata standard extends the FGDC standard to include elements that are required to facilitate our internal data management. These elements, referred to as "layers," group and describe files that have intrinsic logical or topological relationships and correspond to subdirectories within the data distribution package. The metadata layer provides the metadata or other documentation files. Attribute information for each data layer is described in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribute_Information" section. Data layer contents:
hypothetical-composite-line:    Estimated, "maximum credible scenario" inundation line that encompasses the maximum extent of flooding based on model simulation of all credible source scenarios and historical observations. The "maximum credible scenario" inundation line becomes a basis for local tsunami hazard planning and development of evacuation maps.
observed-1964-inundation:    Maximum observed tsunami runup in downtown Seward and at the head of Resurrection Bay in 1964
tectonic-scenario-01:    Scenario 1. Repeat of the 1964 event: Source function based on the coseismic deformation model (SDM) by Suito and Freymueller (2009) 
tectonic-scenario-02:    Scenario 2. Modified 1964 event: Prince William Sound asperity of the SDM
tectonic-scenario-03:    Scenario 3. Modified 1964 event: Kodiak asperity of the SDM
tectonic-scenario-04:    Scenario 4. Hypothetical event: Rupture of the Pamplona zone between the Yakutat block and the North American plate
landslide-scenario-05:    Scenario 5. Waves generated by three major underwater slide complexes of the 1964 earthquake - Seward downtown slide, Lowell Point slide, and Fourth of July slide
landslide-scenario-06:    Scenario 6. Hypothetical event: Simultaneous underwater slope failures at four locations where sediment accumulated since 1964
landslide-scenario-07:    Scenario 7. Hypothetical event: Simultaneous underwater slope failures at four locations where sediment accumulated since 1964, with added sediment volumes
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Suleimani, E.N., Nicolsky, D.J., West, D.A., Combellick, R.A., and Hansen, R.A., 2010, Tsunami inundation maps of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2010-1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 47 p., 3 sheets, scale 1:12,500.

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -149.444056
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -149.337666
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 60.145982
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 60.060983

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 2009
    Ending_Date: 2010
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: report, maps, digital-data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a vector data set.

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      The horizontal datum used is World Geodetic System of 1984.
      The ellipsoid used is World Geodetic System of 1984.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378137.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/298.257223563.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    ri2010-1-hypothetical-composite-line
    Estimated, "maximum credible scenario" inundation line that encompasses the maximum extent of flooding based on model simulation of all credible source scenarios and historical observations. The "maximum credible scenario" inundation line becomes a basis for local tsunami hazard planning and development of evacuation maps. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-observed-1964-inundation
    Maximum observed tsunami runup in downtown Seward and at the head of Resurrection Bay in 1964. File format: shapefile (Source: This report and Lemke, 1967)

    ri2010-1-tectonic-scenario-01
    Scenario 1. Repeat of the 1964 event: Source function based on coseismic deformation model (SDM) by Suito and Freymueller (2009). File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-tectonic-scenario-02
    Scenario 2. Modified 1964 event: Prince William Sound asperity of the SDM. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-tectonic-scenario-03
    Scenario 3. Modified 1964 event: Kodiak asperity of the SDM. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-tectonic-scenario-04
    Scenario 4. Hypothetical event: Rupture of the Pamplona zone between the Yakutat block and the North American plate. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-landslide-scenario-05
    Scenario 5. Waves generated by three major underwater slide complexes of the 1964 earthquake - Seward downtown slide, Lowell Point slide, and Fourth of July slide. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-landslide-scenario-06
    Scenario 6. Hypothetical event: Simultaneous underwater slope failures at four locations where sediment accumulated since 1964. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)

    ri2010-1-landslide-scenario-07
    Scenario 7. Hypothetical event: Simultaneous underwater slope failures at four locations where sediment accumulated since 1964, with added sediment volumes. File format: shapefile (Source: This report)


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This project was supported by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration grants 27-014d and 06-028a through Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research. Numerical calculations for this work were supported by a grant of High Performance Computing (HPC) resources from the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks as part of the U.S. Department of Defense HPC Modernization Program. We thank Dr. Robert C. Witter and Dr. Aggeliki Barberopoulou for their thoughtful reviews of the draft manuscript and maps.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Manager
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    (907)451-5020 (voice)
    dggsgis@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays


Why was the data set created?

The purpose of this study is to evaluate tsunami hazard for the community of Seward and northern Resurrection Bay area, Alaska. This report will provide guidance to local emergency managers in tsunami hazard assessment. We used a numerical modeling method to estimate the extent of inundation by tsunami waves generated from earthquake and landslide sources. Our tsunami scenarios included a repeat of the tsunami of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake, as well as tsunami waves generated by two hypothetical Yakataga Gap earthquakes in northeastern Gulf of Alaska, hypothetical earthquakes in Prince William Sound and Kodiak asperities of the 1964 rupture, and local underwater landslides in Resurrection Bay. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations in the region are intended to help local emergency officials with evacuation planning and public education for reducing future tsunami risk.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Labay, K.A. and Haeussler, P.J., 2008 (source 1 of 5)
    Labay, K.A., and Haeussler, P.J., 2008, Combined high-resolution LIDAR topography and multibeam bathymetry for northern Resurrection Bay, Seward, Alaska: Data Series DS 374, U.S. Geological Survey, United States.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: digital data
    Source_Contribution: development of nested grids

    Nicolsky, D.J and others, 2011 (source 2 of 5)
    Nicolsky, D.J, Suleimani, E.N, and Hansen, R.A, 2011, Validation and verification of a numerical model for tsunami propagation and runup: Pure and Applied Geophysics v. 168, Birkhauser Geoscience, Switzerland.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: model validation

    Suito, Hisashi and Freymueller, J.T, 2010 (source 3 of 5)
    Suito, Hisashi, and Freymueller, J.T, 2010, A viscoelastic and afterslip postseismic deformation model for the 1964 Alaska earthquake: Journal of Geophysical Research v. 114, no. B11, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: model verification

    Suleimani, E.N. and others, 2009 (source 4 of 5)
    Suleimani, E.N., Haeussler, P.J., and Hansen, R.A., 2009, Numerical study of tsunami generated by multiple submarine slope failures in Resurrection Bay, Alaska, during the M9.2 1964 earthquake: Pure and Applied Geophysics v. 166, Birkhauser Geoscience, Switzerland.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: model verification

    Lemke, R.W., 1967 (source 5 of 5)
    Lemke, R.W., 1967, Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Seward, Alaska: Professional Paper P 542-E, U.S. Geological Survey, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: p. E1-E43, 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: model verification

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2009 (process 1 of 6)
    Development of nested grids - To support inundation modeling of coastal areas in Alaska, we used a series of nested telescoping grids, or digital elevation models (DEMs), as input layers for tsunami inundation modeling and mapping. These grids of increasing resolution allow us to propagate waves generated by both distant and local sources to Resurrection Bay. These grids of increasing resolution allowed us to propagate waves generated by both distant and local sources to Passage Canal. In order to propagate a wave from its source to various coastal locations we used embedded grids, placing a large, coarse grid in deep water and coupling it with smaller, finer grids in shallow water areas. See Methodology and data section of this report for more detail and additional data source information.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Labay, K.A. and Haeussler, P.J., 2008

    Date: 2009 (process 2 of 6)
    Model validation - The numerical model that was used for simulation of tsunami wave propagation and runup was validated through a set of analytical benchmarks, and tested against laboratory data. The model solves nonlinear shallow water equations using a finite-difference method on a staggered grid. See Methodology and data section of this report for more detail and additional model information.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Nicolsky, D.J and others, 2011

    Date: 2009 (process 3 of 6)
    Model verification - We performed the verification of the numerical model using observations of the 1964 tsunami. We compared results of inundation modeling in Resurrection Bay with observations collected shortly after the event. First, we simulated tsunami waves generated by multiple submarine slope failures using a numerical model of a viscous slide coupled with a numerical model for water waves. Then, we simulated the tectonic tsunami in Resurrection Bay using an output of a coseismic deformation model of the 1964 earthquake as an initial condition for water waves. The composite inundation zone was compared with the observed extent of inundation in Seward and at the head of Resurrection Bay. See Methodology and data and Modeling results sections of this report for more detail and additional model information.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Suito, Hisashi and Freymueller, J.T, 2010
    • Suleimani, E.N. and others, 2009
    • Lemke, R.W., 1967

    Date: 2009 (process 4 of 6)
    Numerical simulations of hypothetical tsunami scenarios - We evaluate hazard related to tectonic and landslide-generated tsunamis in Resurrection Bay by performing model simulations for each hypothetical earthquake and landslide source scenario. Numerical results for each scenario include extent of inundation, sea level and velocity time series, tsunami flow depth and maximum drag force. See "Modeling results" section of this report for more detail and additional information.

    Date: 2010 (process 5 of 6)
    Compilation of maximum inundation zone and maximum flow depths - We calculated maximum composite extent of potential inundation by combining the maximum calculated inundation extents of all scenarios. The same method was used for calculation of maximum flow depths over dry land. See Modeling results section of the associated manuscript for more detail and additional information.

    Date: 2010 (process 6 of 6)
    Calculation of the potential inundation lines - For each grid cell in the high-resolution DEM, we found whether this cell was inundated by waves or stayed dry through out the entire simulation. Then, we defined a function that provides a value that is equal to one at the center of each wet cell and is equal to negative one at the center of each dry cell. Using a linear interpolation algorithm in Matlab, we plotted a zero-value contour that delineates dry and wet cells from each other. The contour line was then directly exported to the ArcGIS in the WGS84 datum.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Nicolsky, D.J., Suleimani, E.N., Combellick, R.A., and Hansen, R.A., 2011, Tsunami inundation maps of Whittier and western Passage Canal, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2011-7, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 65 p
    Nicolsky, D.J., Suleimani, E.N., Haeussler, P.J., Ryan, H.F., Koehler, R.D., Combellick, R.A., and Hansen, R.A., 2013, Tsunami inundation maps of Port Valdez, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2013-1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 77 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:12,500
    Suleimani, E.N., Combellick, R.A., Marriott, D., Hansen, R.A., Venturato, A.J., and Newman, J.C., 2005, Tsunami hazard maps of the Homer and Seldovia areas, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2005-2, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 28 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:12,500
    Suleimani, E.N., Hansen, R.A., Combellick, R.A., and Carver, G.A., 2002, Tsunami hazard maps of the Kodiak area, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2002-1, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 16 p., 4 sheets, scale 1:12,500
    Suleimani, E.N., Nicolsky, D.J., and Koehler, R.D., 2013, Tsunami inundation maps of Sitka, Alaska: Report of Investigation RI 2013-3, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska, United States.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 76 p., 1 sheet, scale 1:250,000


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    The extent of inundation caused by hypothetical future tsunami waves was calculated using numerical modeling of tsunami wave propagation and runup. The final, highest resolution grid of the northern Resurrection Bay, where the inundation extent was calculated, has a spacing of 15 meters. Although the location of the inundation line has an accuracy of approximately plus or minus 15 m horizontally relative to the grid spacing, the true location accuracy is unknown, because of the complex modeling process the accuracy depends on many factors. These factors include correctness of the earthquake source model, accuracy of the bathymetric and topographic data, soil compaction in areas of unconsolidated deposits and the adequacy of the numerical model in representing the generation, propagation, and run-up of tsunami waves. Actual areas inundated will depend on specifics of earth deformations, on-land construction, and tide level, and may differ from areas shown on the map. The limits of inundation shown should only be used as a guideline for emergency planning and response action. The information is intended to permit state and local agencies to plan emergency evacuation and tsunami response actions in the event of a major tsunamigenic event. These files are not intended for land-use regulation, property valuation, or any use other than the stated purpose. Users should review the accompanying report, particularly the Sources of Errors and Uncertainties section, for a detailed discussion of limitations of the methods used to generate the various inundation models.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The extent of tsunami inundation in Seward was calculated through numerical modeling of water waves over realistic bathymetry and topography. The input data for the tsunami model includes the combined topographic and bathymetric DEM of 15-m resolution described in the USGS Digital Data Series 374, "Combined High-Resolution LIDAR Topography and Multibeam Bathymetry for Northern Resurrection Bay, Seward, Alaska," by Keith A. Labay and Peter J. Haeussler. According to the corresponding metadata file, the horizontal accuracy of this DEM has not been tested. We conducted all model runs using bathymetric data that correspond to Mean High Water (MHW), with the exception of numerical modeling of the 1964 tsunami for the purpose of model validation. Those runs were conducted using the stage of tide at the time of the earthquake, approximately Mean Low Water.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The dataset contains tsunami inundation limits for 4 tectonic and 3 landslide source scenarios, the 1964 observed inundation limit, and the composite maximum extent of inundation. The inundation limits are results of numerical modeling of tsunami waves with the use of shallow water equations. We conducted all hypothetical model runs using bathymetric data that correspond to Mean High Water so that the resulting maximum inundation line represents a maximum credible scenario of tsunami occurrence at high tide. The model does not take into account the periodical change of sea level due to tides, but it does include the effect of local uplift or subsidence during the earthquake. The data used to calculate the potential extent of tsunami inundation includes: high-resolution topography and bathymetry of Resurrection Bay, historic records of the 1964 inundation line at Seward, historic seismicity measurements, pre- and post-1964 bathymetry difference map of Resurrection Bay, and related tectonic geometry. The northern part of Resurrection Bay has been studied in great detail and we feel that the density of available information is sufficient to allow for confidence in our interpretations of likely extents of tsunami inundation.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Results of numerical modeling were verified by simulating historic tsunamis. Inundation lines are visually inspected using GIS software for identification of anomalous elevations or data inconsistencies. See text report for detailed explanation of the tests used to determine the fidelity among the various data sources that were used to generate this dataset.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset is available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
This dataset includes results of numerical modeling of earthquake-generated tsunami waves for a specific community. Modeling was completed using the best information and tsunami modeling software available at the time of analysis. They are numerical solutions and, while they are believed to be accurate, their ultimate accuracy during an actual tsunami will depend on the specifics of earth deformations, on-land construction, tide level, and other parameters at the time of the tsunami. Actual areas of inundation may differ from areas shown in this dataset. Landslide tsunami sources may not be included in the modeling due to unknown potential impact of such events on a given community; please refer to accompanying report for more information on tsunami sources used for this study. The limits of inundation shown should only be used as a general guideline for emergency planning and response action in the event of a major tsunamigenic earthquake. These results are not intended for any other use, including land-use regulation or actuarial purposes. Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. The user specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys. The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties for merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, functions, or capabilities of the electronic data or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products or any failure thereof or otherwise. In no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the Requestor or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    (907)451-5020 (voice)
    (907)451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our website (<http://www.dggs.alaska.gov>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    RI 2010-1

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no expressed or implied warranties (including warranties for merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, functions, or capabilities of the electronic data or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products or any failure thereof or otherwise. In no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the Requestor or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 07-Jan-2014
Metadata author:
Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

(907)451-5020 (voice)

Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)
Metadata extensions used:


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