Geothermal Resources of Alaska

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title: Geothermal Resources of Alaska
Abstract:
Between 1979 and 1982, the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, undertook an assessment of the states geothermal resources under a program jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Alaska. During this period, reconnaissance investigations of more than 100 thermal spring sites and fumarole fields located in Alaska were conducted by DGGS.
Supplemental_Information:
The layers listed below are present as ArcGIS shape files. Attribute information for the following layers (entities) is included in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribute_Information" section. Each layer is listed and described in detail under its own heading starting "Entity_Type_Label." Layers include:
HeatFlow_points     geothermal gradient test hole
Hotsprings_points     hotsprings
ThermalH2O_poly     potential exploration area for geothermal resources
VolcanicRocks    Quaternary or Quaternary-Tertiary volcanic rocks
VolcanicVents_points    volcanic vents
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Motyka, R.J., Moorman, M.A., and Liss, S.A., 1983, Geothermal Resources of Alaska: Miscellaneous Publication MP 8, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska - USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 sheet, scale 1:2,500,000

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 172.000000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -124.000000
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 71.450459
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.128799

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Beginning_Date: 1983
    Ending_Date: 2006
    Currentness_Reference: publication date

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      The map projection used is Albers Conical Equal Area.

      Projection parameters:
      Standard_Parallel: 55.00000
      Standard_Parallel: 65.00000
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.00000
      False_Easting: 0
      False_Northing: 0

      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.008192
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.008192
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    VolcanicVents_points.shp
    Object type is point, there are 170 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to the location of volcanic vents. This feature was not assigned any user defined attribute. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    HeatFlow_points.shp
    Object type is point, there are 14 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to geothermal gradient test holes. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    LATITUDE
    X (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:51.53
    Maximum:71.19
    Units:degrees

    LONGITUDE
    x (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:-179.02
    Maximum:-132.34
    Units:degrees

    NUMBER_
    This number refers to the range of heat flow values in milliwatts/meter^2 shown for individual wells. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:50
    Maximum:100
    Units:milliwatts/meter^2

    SYMBOL
    Marker used to identify location of geothermal gradient test hole. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    ValueDefinition
    6Marker.

    Hotsprings_points.shp
    Object type is point, there are 125 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to the location of thermal springs and wells. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    NUMBER_
    Unique number assigned to each thermal spring/well. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    XX-YY; XX=AA (Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula), SC (south-central Alaska), NC (north-central Alaska), SE (southeast Alaska), YY=unique sample identifier.

    NAME
    Name of thermal spring/well. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Unique name for each thermal spring/well.

    LATITUDE
    Latitude of thermal spring/well location. When numerous springs are present, position is middle location. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:53.89
    Maximum:69.63
    Units:degrees

    LONGITUDE
    Longitude of thermal spring/well location. When numerous springs are present, position is middle location. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:-179.63
    Maximum:-131.27
    Units:degrees

    TEMPERATUR
    Temperature of thermal spring/well in degrees Celsius. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:470
    Units:degrees Celsius

    HIGHEST_RE
    Temperature for hottest spring or spring with highest flow. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:470
    Units:degrees Celsius

    PH_FIELD_
    Ph of thermal spring/well from field measurement. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:9.6

    TOTAL_DISS
    Total dissolved solids (mg/L) (computed value). (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:42500
    Units:milligrams/Liter

    FLOW_IN_L_
    Flow rate of thermal spring/well in liters per minute (measured or estimated). In cases of multiple orifices, the flow rate reported is for the group as a whole.When numerous springs are present, position is middle location. Temperature is given for hottest spring or spring with highest flow. If no data is shown for a field, no data is available. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Range of values
    Minimum:0
    Maximum:7600
    Units:Liters/minute

    SURFACE_MA
    Surface manifestation. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Please see chart on printed publication for surface manifestation. Surface manifestation includes fumaroles, springs, geysers, mudpots, wells, seeps, and vents.

    Symbol
    Marker for thermal spring/well. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    ValueDefinition
    1Thermal springs: Surface temperature unknown.
    2Thermal springs: Surface temperature 50 degrees C or lower
    3Thermal springs: Surface temperature higher than 50 degrees C
    4Thermal wells: Surface temperature 50 degrees C or lower
    5Thermal wells: Surface temperature higher than 50 degrees C
    6Heat flow: Geothermal gradient test hole (range of heat flow values in milliwatts/square meter shown for individual wells).

    Notes
    More information for individual thermal spring/well. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Text box on printed map with auxiliary notes on particular locations.

    ThermalH2O_poly.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 35 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to those regions of Alaska favorable for the discovery at shallow depth (less than 1000 m) of thermal water of sufficient temperature for direct heat applications. This feature was not assigned any user defined attribute. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    VolcanicRocks.shp
    Object type is vector, there are 74 rows associated with this entity, and the entity values refer to x. This feature was not assigned any user defined attribute. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    Funding for this project was jointly supplied by the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Alaska. Additional Acknowledgments: John W. Reeder of DGGS supplied information. Map produced by Ronald H. Smith, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado/NOAA, and Joy Ikelman, NGDC/NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, in cooperation with the Earth Science Laboratory/University of Utah Research Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah. Digital thermal well and spring data available from GEOTHERM Project, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, MS84, Menlo Park, California 94025.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Data Manager/Cartographer
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707

    (907) 451-5029 (voice)
    (907) 451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Contact_Instructions:
    You may view our web site at <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us> for the latest information on available data. Please e-mail your questions and data requests when possible since our web site and e-mail address will remain current even if our phone number and mailing address change.


Why was the data set created?

Only a few geothermal areas in Alaska have thus far received any detailed investigation and, except for reconnaissance studies, most of the state's geothermal resources remain virtually unexplored. There has been a growing awareness, however, that geothermal resources can play a significant role in meeting the states energy needs, particularly in rural areas. The primary purpose of this map, therefore, is to aid potential users in development of geothermal resources in a manner beneficial for Alaska.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Miller, 1973 (source 1 of 6)
    Miller, T.P., 1973, Distribution and chemical analyses of thermal springs in Alaska: Open-File Report 73-187, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: scale 1:2,500,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2500000
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication is an earlier compilation of the State's geothermal resources which provided starting points for this compilation.

    Markle, 1979 (source 2 of 6)
    Markle, D., 1979, Geothermal energy in Alaska, site data base and development status: OIT Geo-Heat Utilization Center, Klamath Falls, OR.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: Report Contract DE-AC03-79SF1049, 572 pp., 2 pl.
    This is part of the following larger work.

    (ed.), George Plafker , and (ed.), H.C. Berg , 1994, The Geology of Alaska: The Geology of North America v. G1, Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication is an earlier compilation of the State's geothermal resources which provided starting points for this compilation.

    Lawver et al., 1979 (source 3 of 6)
    Lawver, L.A., Lachenbruch, A.H., and Moses, T.H., Jr., 1979, Status of regional heat-flow studies:.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. B5-B7
    This is part of the following larger work.

    Johnson, K.M. (ed.), and Williams, J.R. (ed.), 1979, The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1978: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 804-B, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Online Links:

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Heat flow data were provided by this publication.

    Skougstad and others, 1979 (source 4 of 6)
    Skougstad, M.W. (ed.), Fishman, M.J. (ed.), Friedman, L.C. (ed.), Erdmann, D.E. (ed.), and Duncan, S.S. (ed.), 1979, Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water Resources Investigations Book 5, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Other_Citation_Details: Chap. A1, 626 pp.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Provided precision of DGGS water-chemistry analyses.

    Motyka et al., 1980 (source 5 of 6)
    Motyka, R.J., Moorman, M.A., and Reeder, J.W., 1980, Assessment of thermal spring sites in southern southeastern Alaska - Preliminary results and evaluation: Alaska Open-File Report AOF 127, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 75 pp.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Standard procedures were used in collection and analysis of data. Accuracy of the data and method of collection was extracted from this publication, including 1) laboratory analysis: methods used and precision and 2) field techniques and sampling procedures.

    Presser and Barnes, 1974 (source 6 of 6)
    Presser, T. S., and Barnes, I., 1974, Special techniques for determining the chemical properties of geothermal waters: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 22-74, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado.

    Other_Citation_Details: 11 pp.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Water samples were collected, filtered, and treated following procedures described in this publication.

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 1979 (process 1 of 4)
    Map compilation: Between 1979 and 1982 the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) and the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, undertook an assessment of the State's geothermal resources under a program jointly sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Alaska. During this period reconnaissance investigations of over 100 thermal spring sites and fumarole fields located in Alaska were conducted by DGGS. This work included reconnaissance of site geology and hydrology, investigation of thermal spring and fumarole characteristics including temperatures and flow rates, and geochemical sampling of thermal fluids. This map is based largely on information gathered from these reconnaissance studies plus additional information obtained from more detailed studies recently conducted at several of the more promising geothermal areas. Additional background material was provided by previous investigations and compilations of the state's geothermal resources (Miller, 1973, Markle, 1979, Lawver et al., 1979)

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Miller, 1973
    • Markle, 1979
    • Lawver et al., 1979

    Date: Aug-2006 (process 2 of 4)
    Digital data compilation - Digital data was produced for this publication using the latitudes and longitudes provided in the chart on the printed publication. Other information was digitized when needed.

    Date: 1979 (process 3 of 4)
    Field techniques and Sampling Procedures: All field techniques and sampling procedures are fully detailed in Motyka et al., 1980. A standard pattern of sample and data acquisition was followed at each thermal area visited. At site with multiple springs, water samples were normally obtained from the thermal spring with the highest temperature and greatest discharge. Water samples were collected, filtered, and treated following procedures described in Presser and Barnes (1974).

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Motyka et al., 1980
    • Presser and Barnes (1974)

    Date: Unknown (process 4 of 4)
    Laboratory Analyses, Methods Used and Precision: Whenever possible, laboratory methods of determination used by DGGS were taken from the list of methods of choice for each chemical species as prescribed by Presser and Barnes (1974). Details on instrumentation and laboratory methods can be found in Motyka et al., 1980.

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Presser and Barnes (1974)
    • Motyka et al., 1980

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    Precisions are listed in Table 1 of Motyka et al., 1980 quoted from Skougstad and other, (eds.) 1979.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    Location data were determined visually using topographic maps at a scale of 1:63,360 and 1:50,000 (nominal) scale, and color-infrared aerial photographs.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    This dataset includes coverages that contain information about volcanic vents, geothermal gradient test holes, hotsprings, potential exploration areas for geothermal resources, and Quaternary or Quaternary-Tertiary volcanic rocks. This work includes reconnaissance of site geology and hydrology, investigation of thermal spring and fumarole characteristics including temperatures and flow rates, and geochemical sampling of thermal fluids. This map is based largely on information gathered from these reconnaissance studies plus additional information obtained from more detailed studies recently conducted at several of the more promising geothermal areas.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Polygon topology is present on appropriate coverages; others are line or point coverages.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset are available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    Natural Resource Technician
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    907-451-5020 (voice)
    907-451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our web site (<http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Miscellaneous Publication 8

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof, or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requester or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    Please check the MapInfo web site (<http://www.mapinfo.com/>) for the latest documentation on importing ESRI shape files.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 06-May-2008
Last Reviewed: 06-May-2008
To be reviewed: 19-Mar-2009
Metadata author:
State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

907-451-5039 (voice)
907-451-5050 (FAX)
dggspubs@alaska.gov

Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays.
Contact_Instructions:
Please contact us through the e-mail address above whenever possible.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Tue May 06 14:29:35 2008