Reconnaissance interpretation of 1978-1983 permafrost, Alaska Highway Corridor, Robertson River to Tetlin Junction, Alaska

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Frequently-anticipated questions:


What does this data set describe?

Title:
Reconnaissance interpretation of 1978-1983 permafrost, Alaska Highway Corridor, Robertson River to Tetlin Junction, Alaska
Abstract:
During 2008 the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted reconnaissance interpretive mapping of permafrost in Alaska Highway Corridor Segment 2, a 12-mi-wide (19.3-km-wide) corridor that straddles the Alaska Highway through the upper Tanana River valley from the eastern boundary of the Mt. Hayes Quadrangle to the eastern edge of the Tanacross Quadrangle. This work was an extension of permafrost mapping done in Alaska Highway Corridor Segment 1 from Delta Junction to Dot Lake in the Big Delta and Mt. Hayes Quadrangles during 2006-2007. Primarily, we inferred the extent of permafrost and ice content by interpreting ~1:65,000-scale, false-color infrared aerial photographs taken in July 1978, August 1980, and July 1983.
Supplemental_Information:
The layers listed below are present as ArcGIS shape files. To enhance print quality, this publication utilized a vector topography data set. The topography data set is not included with this release. Attribute information for the following layers (entities) is included in this metadata file under the "Entity_and_Attribute_Information" section. Basic unit information is also included in the unit code set file "PIR2009-6C_codeset.pdf". Each layer is listed and described in detail under its own heading starting "Entity_Type_Label." Layers include:
permafrostpolygons	permafrost map unit polygons
pingos		locations of pingos
report_locality	locations of site discussed in the text
profile_line	locations of profile discussed in the text
outline		outline shape of the study area
  1. How should this data set be cited?

    Reger, R.D., and Hubbard, T.D., 2010, Reconnaissance interpretation of 1978-1983 permafrost, Alaska Highway Corridor, Robertson River to Tetlin Junction, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2009-6C, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska - USA.

    Online Links:

    Other_Citation_Details: 4 sheets, 1:63,360 scale

  2. What geographic area does the data set cover?

    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -144.000
    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -142.5
    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 63.74115
    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 62.16610

  3. What does it look like?

  4. Does the data set describe conditions during a particular time period?

    Calendar_Date: Jul-1978
    Currentness_Reference: ground condition

  5. What is the general form of this data set?

    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: document, map sheets and vector digital data

  6. How does the data set represent geographic features?

    1. How are geographic features stored in the data set?

      This is a Vector data set.

    2. What coordinate system is used to represent geographic features?

      Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
      Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
      UTM_Zone_Number: 7
      Transverse_Mercator:
      Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: 0.9996
      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -141.00000
      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0
      False_Easting: 500000.0
      False_Northing: 0

      Planar coordinates are encoded using coordinate pair
      Abscissae (x-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000001
      Ordinates (y-coordinates) are specified to the nearest 0.000001
      Planar coordinates are specified in meters

      The horizontal datum used is North American Datum of 1927.
      The ellipsoid used is Clarke 1866.
      The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid used is 6378206.4.
      The flattening of the ellipsoid used is 1/294.978698.

  7. How does the data set describe geographic features?

    permafrostpolygons.shp
    permafrost map unit polygons (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    MapUnit
    Label of map unit shown on map signifying interpreted extent and amount of permafrost within polygon. (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Formal codeset
    Codeset Name:PIR2009-6C_codeset.pdf
    Codeset Source:Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us/metadata/PIR2009-3C_codeset.pdf>

    report_locality.shp
    Points identifying locations discussed in the report (PIR 2009-6c) (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    locality
    Locality label as shown on map (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    A

    LocLat
    Latitude of locality (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    ValueDefinition
    N 63° 19' 9.1"Latitude location of locality A (degrees, minutes, seconds)

    LocLong
    Longitude of locality (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    ValueDefinition
    W 142° 37' 46.6"Longitude location of point A (degrees, minutes, seconds).

    LocNorth
    northing (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    ValueDefinition
    7021993.074Northing coordinate for location of point A (meters).

    LocEast
    easting (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, see Spatial_Reference_Information)

    ValueDefinition
    418361.832Easting coordinate for location of point A (meters).

    Quadrangle
    quadrangle (Source: USGS topographic quadrangle sheets)

    ValueDefinition
    Tanacross B-4 QuadrangleQuadrangle location where point is located

    pingos.shp
    point location of pingos (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    Id
    symbol identifying location of pingo on map (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    pingos shown on map

    outline.shp
    Polygon outlining boundary of map area (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    shape
    shape of polygon outlining map boundary (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    shape of map area

    profile_line.shp
    profile line discussed in text (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    shape
    line showing location of profile discussed in text (Source: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys)

    profile line discussed in text


Who produced the data set?

  1. Who are the originators of the data set? (may include formal authors, digital compilers, and editors)

  2. Who also contributed to the data set?

    This research was supported by Alaska State Capital Improvement Projects funding. The authors gratefully acknowledge the helpful review by Rod Combellick, and able cartographic assistance by Patricia Gallagher, Garrett Speeter, and Gail Davidson. Much of the work was carried out under the direction of Diana Solie and her leadership was greatly appreciated.

  3. To whom should users address questions about the data?

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    GIS Data Manager/Cartographer
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707

    (907) 451-5029 (voice)
    (907) 451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Contact_Instructions:
    You may view our web site at <http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us> for the latest information on available data. Please e-mail your questions and data requests when possible since our web site and e-mail address will remain current even if our phone number and mailing address change.


Why was the data set created?

This report and map are a part of ADGGS's Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Geology and Geohazards project, funded by the state legislature, showing an interpretive evaluation of the presence or absence of permafrost in the study area. The study was done in anticipation of the proposed natural gas pipeline along the Alaska Highway corridor, as a preliminary look at the expected distribution of permafrost based on air photo interpretation. The work was designed to serve as the springboard for the detailed work which would be required if a pipeline were to be built along this corridor. Because of the dearth of subsurface data in most of the map area, our permafrost designations should be considered tentative until validated by multi-year ground-temperature measurements at a depth below the level of annual temperature variation.


How was the data set created?

  1. From what previous works were the data drawn?

    Kreig and Reger, 1982 (source 1 of 13)
    Kreig, R.A., and Reger, R.D., 1982, Air-photo analysis and summary of landform and soil properties along the route of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System: Geologic Report GR 66, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    This publication served as a guide for interpretation of aerial photographs for surficial deposits.

    USGS Tanacross A-4, 1948 (source 2 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1948, Tanacross A-4 Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 sheet
    Type_of_Source_Media: All Topo software
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: base map

    USGS Tanacross B-4, 1949 (source 3 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1949, Tanacross B-4 Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 sheet
    Type_of_Source_Media: All Topo software
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: base map

    USGS Tanacross B-5, 1948 (source 4 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1948, Tanacross B-5 Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: All Topo software
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: base map

    USGS Tanacross B-6, 1949 (source 5 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1949, Tanacross B-6 Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: All Topo software
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: base map

    USGS Tanacross C-6, 1955 (source 6 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1955, Tanacross C-6 Quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

    Other_Citation_Details: scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: All Topo software
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution: base map

    AHAP Aerial Photography (source 7 of 13)
    U.S. Geological Survey, 1978, Alaska High Altitude Aerial Photography Program: U. S. Geological Survey, unknown.

    Type_of_Source_Media: photographic print
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 65000
    Source_Contribution: aerial photography used in map unit interpretation

    Black, 1976 (source 8 of 13)
    Black, R.F., 1976, Periglacial features indicative of permafrost- Ice and soil wedges: Quaternary Research v. 6, No. 1.

    Other_Citation_Details: p. 3-26
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Contains information about features indicative of permafrost

    Ferrians, 1965 (source 9 of 13)
    Ferrians, O.J., Jr., 1965, Permafrost map of Alaska: Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-445, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 map sheet, scale 1:2,500,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 2500000
    Source_Contribution: Generalized permafrost map of Alaska

    Ferrians and others, 1969 (source 10 of 13)
    Ferrians, O.J., Kachadoorian, R., and Greene, G.W., 1969, Permafrost and related engineering problems in Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper P 678.

    Other_Citation_Details: 37 p.
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains information about permafrost as it relates to engineering problems

    Pewe, 1975 (source 11 of 13)
    Pewe, T. L., 1975, Quaternary Geology of Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Profession Paper P 835.

    Other_Citation_Details: 145 p
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution: Contains information about the Quaternary in Alaska

    Reger and others, 2008 (source 12 of 13)
    Reger, R.D., Stevens, D.S.P., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Reconnaissance interpretation of permafrost, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta junction to Dot lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3C, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 map sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Scale_Denominator: 63360
    Source_Contribution:
    contains information about interpreted permafrost in adjoining map area.

    Brown and others, 1997 (source 13 of 13)
    Brown, J., Ferrians, O.J. Jr., Heginbottom, J.A., and Melnikov, E.S., 1997, Circum-arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions: U.S. Geological Survey Circum-pacific Map CP-45.

    Other_Citation_Details: 1 map sheet, Scale 1:2,500,000
    Type_of_Source_Media: paper
    Source_Contribution:
    Contains information about permafrost and ground ice conditions in the circum arctic region

  2. How were the data generated, processed, and modified?

    Date: 2008 (process 1 of 4)
    Aerial photograph interpretation and compilation of existing work. Geologic data from published and unpublished mapping of the target region and adjacent regions were compiled. Stereo pairs of ~1:65,000-scale, false-color infrared aerial photographs taken in July 1978, August 1980, and July 1983 were used to interpret the presence and condition of permafrost. Interpreted proxy data include vegetation, slope and aspect, landforms, geology, local drainage, and terrain features. Unit boundaries were drawn by hand onto acetate overlays, using a magnifying stereoscope. Overlays were registered to aerial photos using tick marks on the photos. The air-photos and scanned overlays were orthorectified, photomosaiced and georeferencedusing Orthomapper 3.6. Permafrost unit boundaries were digitized on-screen into ArcGIS 9+ from the orthorectified overlays at a scale more detailed than 1:63,360, using a combination of a USGS topographic 1:63.360 map layer and the air-photo photomosaic layer to verify the position of the lines. Permafrost map polygons and lines were then edited and attributed using ArcMap 9+

    Data sources used in this process:

    • Black, 1976
    • Brown and others, 1997
    • Ferrians, 1965
    • Ferrians and others, 1969
    • Kreig and Reger, 1982
    • Pewe, 1975
    • Reger and others, 2008
    • USGS Tanacross A-4, 1948
    • USGS Tanacross B-4, 1949
    • USGS Tanacross B-5, 1948
    • USGS Tanacross B-6, 1949
    • USGS Tanacross C-6, 1949
    • AHAP Aerial Photography

    Date: 2008 (process 2 of 4)
    Fieldwork - In July-August 2008, to verify aerial photo interpretations, localities of varying permafrost conditions were visited in the field to observe surface conditions. In addition, several pits were dug using shovels to maximum depth of 1.5 meters to observe soil profiles and whether frozen soil was present.

    Date: 2009 (process 3 of 4)
    Map compilation - The permafrost map was compiled using field notes from fieldwork process step (above), all known geologic data from previous work in the general region and by additional aerial photograph interpretation. Changes to unit boundaries, after field work, were completed in ArcGIS 9+. GIS files were exported and Adobe Illustrator was used to create the final map layout.

    Date: 2009 (process 4 of 4)
    Metadata creation - Metadata were assembled by T.D. Hubbard to FGDC Standards using Metavist 1.2, DGGS 7.05, a data entry program for FGDC metadata with XML output.

  3. What similar or related data should the user be aware of?

    Reger, R.D., Hubbard, T.D., and Carver, G.C., 2010, Surficial geology of Alaska Highway Corridor, Robertson River to Tetlin Junction, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2009-6A, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 4 sheets. 1:63,360 scale
    Reger, R.D., and Hubbard, T.D., 2010, Engineering-geologic map of the Alaska Highway Corridor, Robertson River to Tetlin Junction, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2009-6B, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, Alaska - USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 4 sheets, 1:63,360 scale
    Reger, R.D., Stevens, D.S.P., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Surficial-geologic map, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3A, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Reger, R.D., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Engineering-geologic map, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3B, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360
    Reger, R.D., and Solie, D.N., 2008, Reconnaissance interpretation of permafrost, Alaska Highway Corridor, Delta Junction to Dot Lake, Alaska: Preliminary Interpretive Report PIR 2008-3C, State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, Fairbanks, AK, USA.

    Other_Citation_Details: 10 p., 2 sheets, scale 1:63,360


How reliable are the data; what problems remain in the data set?

  1. How well have the observations been checked?

    This dataset utilizes ~1:65,000-scale, false-color infrared aerial photographs taken in July 1978, August 1980, and July 1983 to infer permafrost and ice content boundaries. This report uses the definition of permafrost as rock or soil that remains continuously colder than 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) for two years or longer. The presence or former presence of permafrost and the ground-ice content were inferred from several indicators, including vegetation, slope and aspect, landform, soil type, local drainage, and terrain features, such as open-system pingos, polygonal ground, and thermokarst pits, gullies, and ponds (see lineage reference - Kreig and Reger, 1982). Permafrost classifications in areas that were burned just prior to aerial photography dates are less reliable than in unburned areas because the vegetation was destroyed or significantly altered and, in these areas, interpretation of permafrost was based only on landform and setting, which are less diagnostic than vegetation. During the 2008 field season we excavated and examined soil pits at selected locations to ground check unit descriptions and contacts. Because of the dearth of subsurface data in most of the map area, our permafrost designations should be considered tentative until validated by multi-year ground-temperature measurements at a depth below the level of annual temperature variation.

    To check attribute accuracy of the digital files we visually compared the original compilation against test plots of the files and corrected discrepancies between the digital geospatial dataset and the original analog as needed. The geologic interpretations presented in this report have undergone two technical reviews by a geologist familiar with the subject of the report and the geology of the map area. We incorporated the reviewer's suggestions into the final draft when deemed appropriate.

  2. How accurate are the geographic locations?

    The permafrost interpretations were first hand-drawn, using a magnifying stereoscope, onto acetate air-photo overlays at the scale of the air-photos (approximately inch-to-the-mile). The accuracy of the map unit boundary and point locations varies due to the scale and interpretive nature of the mapping and pen line width of approximately 0.001 meter which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 meters on the ground. The hand drawn map unit boundaries and point locations are expected to be accurate to at least 150 meters.

    Following interpretation, acetate overlays were then individually scanned and orthorectified, using Orthomapper, v. 3.6, and georeferenced. The air-photos were orthorectified, photomosaiced and georeferenced. Permafrost unit and point locations boundaries were digitized on-screen into ArcGIS from the orthorectified overlays at a scale more detailed than 1:63,360, using a combination of a USGS topographic 1:63.360 map layer and the air-photo photomosaic layer to verify the position of the lines and points. Map error is induced by: (1) Scanning and orthorectifying air photos and overlays. The digitizing RMS error (30 control points on a regular grid have an average RMS error of 14.0 meters on the ground; individual control point error ranges from 2.9 to 24.0 meters on the ground) 2) Onscreen digitizing from orthorectified overlays. The accuracy of the human operator digitizing polylines and point localities is related to the accuracy of interpretations from the orthorectified photos and overlays. Total horizontal error in the map unit boundaries is estimated to be less than 175 meters.

    Locations on the map that are discussed in the text were recorded using a Garmin GPS model 76CSx and their accuracy is related to horizontal error of the GPS which is 4 meters or less.

  3. How accurate are the heights or depths?

  4. Where are the gaps in the data? What is missing?

    The shapefiles in this dataset designate ice content, location, and presence of permafrost and pingos discussed in the report. The data set utilizes field observations and air photo interpretations to locate and characterize the permafrost extent and features. It includes geospatial information about units traceable on air photos at a scale of ~1:65000 and/or in the field.

  5. How consistent are the relationships among the observations, including topology?

    Polygon topology is present and clean on the original geospatial dataset. All polygon features were topologically validated using the ESRI ArcGIS 9.+ software prior to export to shape file format. The logical consistency of the point files has been visually checked but not systematically verified.


How can someone get a copy of the data set?

Are there legal restrictions on access or use of the data?

Access_Constraints:
This report, map, and/or dataset are available directly from the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (see contact information below).
Use_Constraints:
Any hard copies or published datasets utilizing these datasets shall clearly indicate their source. If the user has modified the data in any way, the user is obligated to describe the types of modifications the user has made. The user specifically agrees not to misrepresent these datasets, nor to imply that changes made by the user were approved by the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys.

  1. Who distributes the data set? (Distributor 1 of 1)

    State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
    Natural Resource Technician
    3354 College Road
    Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
    USA

    907-451-5020 (voice)
    907-451-5050 (FAX)
    dggspubs@alaska.gov

    Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays
    Contact_Instructions:
    Please view our web site (<http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us>) for the latest information on available data. Please contact us using the e-mail address provided above when possible.
  2. What's the catalog number I need to order this data set?

    Preliminary Interpretive Report 2009-6C

  3. What legal disclaimers am I supposed to read?

    The State of Alaska makes no express or implied warranties (including warranties of merchantability and fitness) with respect to the character, function, or capabilities of the electronic services or products or their appropriateness for any user's purposes. In no event will the State of Alaska be liable for any incidental, indirect, special, consequential, or other damages suffered by the user or any other person or entity whether from the use of the electronic services or products, any failure thereof, or otherwise, and in no event will the State of Alaska's liability to the requester or anyone else exceed the fee paid for the electronic service or product.

  4. How can I download or order the data?

  5. What hardware or software do I need in order to use the data set?

    Please check the MapInfo web site (<http://www.mapinfo.com/>) for the latest documentation on importing ESRI shape files.


Who wrote the metadata?

Dates:
Last modified: 30-Sep-2009
Last Reviewed: 05-Oct-2009
To be reviewed: 13-May-2010
Metadata author:
State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys
Metadata Manager
3354 College Road
Fairbanks, AK 99709-3707
USA

907-451-5039 (voice)
907-451-5050 (FAX)
dggspubs@alaska.gov

Hours_of_Service: 8 am to 4:30 pm, Monday through Friday, except State holidays.
Contact_Instructions:
Please contact us through the e-mail address above whenever possible.
Metadata standard:
FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (FGDC-STD-001-1998)


Generated by mp version 2.9.6 on Thu Jan 14 11:59:26 2010